Informazioni per i coltivatori
Dai valore alla tua varietà
Utilizzando la licenza open source, puoi proteggere la tua varietà di pianta e renderla un bene comune. Inoltre, la licenza offre molti vantaggi ai coltivatori!
- Le varietà open source sono molto richieste.
- L'accesso libero ai materiali per la coltivazione viene garantito a lungo termine.
- Le licenze open source proteggono la tua varietà dalle modifiche genetiche.
Tutte le varietà sono le benvenute! Per "varietà" intendiamo tutti i tipi di materiali per la coltivazione, come linee riproduttive, popolazioni, selezioni da specie selvatiche e generazione filiale da incroci ancora non stabili (F2, F3 e altro). Saremmo anche felici di fornirti consulenza riguardo alla registrazione della tua varietà.
1. Sviluppa una nuova varietà
Non importa se hai molta esperienza o se sei alle prime armi: è importante che la tua varietà sia nuova e che l'abbia sviluppata tu. Anche una varietà locale può essere considerata nuova se è stata sviluppata ulteriormente.
2. Usa la licenza open source
La licenza open source è un'alternativa ai brevetti o alla protezione delle varietà di piante, ma senza il pagamento di diritti. La licenza è gratuita. Leggi il testo completo della licenza qui.
3. Prendi nota delle tre regole
...delle licenze open source:
1. Tutti possono usare liberamente i semi open source.
2. Nessuno può privatizzare il seme o i suoi ulteriori sviluppi.
3. I destinatari futuri devono trasmettere gli stessi diritti e obblighi con il seme.
4. Commercializza la tua varietà
Le varietà open source hanno l'obiettivo di tutelare la diversità e la natura comunitaria delle sementi, caratteristiche che le rendono invitanti per i consumatori. In fase di distribuzione del seme, devi informare i destinatari dei loro diritti e obblighi open source. Puoi trovare la scheda informativa qui.
Inizia a offrire licenze per la tua varietà
Sono stati soddisfatti tutti i requisiti?
- La tua varietà è nuova.
- L'hai sviluppata tu.
- Non è stata immessa sul mercato.
A questo punto, puoi tutelare la tua varietà riempiendo un semplice modulo. La varietà verrà aggiunta al nostro sito web e sarà inserita nel nostro database di varietà open source. Prova anche tu ed entra a far parte della nostra comunità di coltivatori open source.Register your variety
Voices from experts
"Seed has the nature of common property and must be protected from patenting and genetic manipulation. OpenSourceSeeds offers one way to do this. To support this idea as organic plant breeders, we have used the licence to protect a high-quality summer wheat “Convento C” and a sweet corn variety “Lisanco”.
Dr. Hartmut Spieß, Head of Research & Breeding, Dottenfelderhof (organic farm in Germany)
"At a time when wheat intolerances are increasing, varieties on which less breeding work has been done become interesting. People can often tolerate them better. For us, it was important to keep these selections from old varieties accessible for all. No-one should have the possibility to patent them. Crop plants are a community achievement, no-one should be allowed to put them under lock and key.“
Barbara Keller, breeder of the OS-varieties “Bäckerglück“ and “Nudelwunder“ in collaboration with Ernst Rieger
"In times of privatisation, I think it's important that there’s a countermovement and that seed remains freely accessible. When I discovered the open-source varieties in the autumn of 2018, I was so enthusiastic about the idea of distributing seed according to the copyleft principle that I wanted to license my own variety. The OpenSourceSeeds team advised me to first register my chili as a variety not meant to be grown for commercial purposes. It has now been approved under the name of Black Heart."
Michael Theurl, breeder of the "Black Heart" chili.
Good to know
The open-source licence applies only if all users, starting with the breeder, comply with the regulations. Seed that has already been put on the market without an agreement on the open-source terms cannot be protected from patenting because the licence cannot be applied retroactively. Such varieties are, therefore, excluded from open-source licensing.
A major licence violation occurs when open-source material has been used to develop a new variety that is then made subject to patent or plant-variety protection. Infringements can be proven in several ways. First and foremost, the breeder’s documentation can be analysed. According to the provisions of the Nagoya Protocol, detailed documentation is now mandatory for every breeding process. The user of the plant genetic material must document when, where and under which conditions he or she received it. The phenotype and other characteristics of the original variety can also be compared with those of the newly developed one. Comparative gene mapping may be a third option.
As a basic rule, licence infringements can be prosecuted. Our licence is drawn up on the basis of German civil law and can therefore be enforced within the framework of international civil law in most countries of the world.
One of our most important research tasks is to develop new concepts for financing plant breeding work. The label “open source” has already boosted the marketing of individual varieties and thus ensures some return flow of funds.
Seen historically, most agricultural seeds were developed without compulsory levies. Also today, many organic cereal and vegetable breeders in Europe finance their breeding activities partly through “variety development contributions” that are negotiated between breeders, seed producers and farmers. Some charge a small levy on traded items or raise funds from government programmes and donors. More information can be found in the paper “Who pays for seeds?”.
Another aspect may be even more important. Common-property seeds are more than just inputs for agricultural production. Their use also benefits society as a whole in that they are essential for maintaining biodiversity, cultural landscapes, ecosystem system services as well as the capacity to adapt to climate change. These benefits are less and less provided by the business model currently followed by the private seed sector with its IPRs. If plant breeding leads to benefits for society as a whole, then not only farmers and direct users but also people involved in processing and marketing as well as consumers and the State should be helping to carry the breeding costs.
"Genetic engineering (GE) in plant breeding” includes a range of different technologies, and new ones are continuously emerging. What is regarded as GE therefore cannot be precisely defined and regulated by law once and for all. The open-source licence with its copyleft principle, i.e. the transfer of seed-licensing terms to subsequent generations of seed, is designed for perpetuity and cannot exclude plant-breeding techniques that are not yet known.
Nevertheless, the licence provides an effective protection against GE. All GE processes are time-consuming and require comparatively high investments in plant breeding. Economically, such expenditures can be justified only if they can be protected by patents, but patents or other exclusive IPRs are not allowed by the open-source licence.
Thus, the open-source licence does not prohibit GE de jure but it does prevent it de facto. We regard the licence as a good protective mechanism and are not aware of an equally valid alternative.
If you have more questions, feel free to visit our FAQ page. In case you don't find what you need there, don't hesitate to contact us.